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Citation Guide

Discover and explore the basics of why and how to cite.

Chicago/Turabian Style Overview

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

Kate Turabian: A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th Edition

The Chicago Manual of Style is often referred to as Turabian because Kate Turabian's shorter manual is essentially a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style. 

The citation examples below are taken from the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition.

Footnote-Bibliography System

Chicago/Turabian is a note-bibliography system. In this style, the writer provides a footnote (using Arabic numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc.) in addition to a bibliographic citation on the bibliography. Sometimes, an instructor or publisher will request that the bibliography be omitted. 

The footnote should provide a citation for the referenced work or quotation and a page number/range, when available. Place the footnote after the period of the sentence in which the citation occurs.

To insert a footnote in Microsoft Word: Insert > Footnote (Alt+Ctl+F).

The Short Form Footnote

In Chicago/Turabian style, if you cite a source more than once, you should use a shortened footnote for the second and subsequent citations of that source. The short note will usually consist of the author's last name and the first part of the title. See the examples below (Book and Journal Citations) of the long form and short form of the same source. 

The shortened footnote should also include the page number/range of the referenced work or quotation, when available.

Note: Chicago/Turabian once used the Latin abbreviation ibid. (ibid., short for ibidem = "in the same place") for subsequent references to a source in the footnotes. While ibid. is technically correct, the short footnote is now the preferred style because it makes it easier for writers to keep track of their notes should they add citations between a long form footnote and an ibid. during the writing and revision process. Simply put, the scholarly ibid. worked better in the age of the typewriter!

Chicago/Turabian Book Citations

One Author

Note (Long and Short):

1. Cheryl Strayed, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), 87-88.

2. Strayed, Wild, 261, 265.

Bibliography:

Strayed, Cheryl. Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012.

Multiple Authors

Note (Long and Short):

1. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 188.

2. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 190.

Bibliography: 

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Note: Should a work have three authors, list all the names. For works with four or more authors, give only the author's first name and include an et al., as in this example:

1. Mark Samson et al., The Art of . . . (Notice no comma precedes et al.)

Chicago/Turabian Journal Citations

Note (Long and Short):

1. Benjamin Bagley, "Loving Someone in Particular," Ethics 125, no. 2 (January 2015): 484-85.

2. Bagley, "Loving Someone in Particular," 501.

Bibliography:

Bagley, Benjamin. "Loving Someone in Particular." Ethics 125, no. 2 (January 2015): 477-507.

Note: The bibliography contains the page range of the entire article.

See rules for multiple authors under Book Citation.

Chicago/Turabian Magazine Citations

Magazines use a similar format to journal articles. Note the different way the date is written. For bibliography citations, use the same format as the journal citation (above).

Print (Note)

1. Beth Saulnier, "From Vine to Wine," Cornell Alumni Magazine, September/October 2008, 48.

2. Jill Lepore, "The Man Who Broke the Music Business," New Yorker, April 27, 2015, 59.

Online (Note)

1. Karl Vick, "Cuba on the Cusp," Time, March 26, 2015, http://time.com/3759629/cuba-us-policy/.

2. Henry William Hanemann, "French as She Is Now Spoken," Life, August 26, 1926, 5, ProQuest.

Note: "ProQuest" in the second example above refers to the library database in which the article was retrieved. 

Chicago/Turabian Newspaper Citations

Newspapers are similar to magazines. Provide links to newspaper articles retrieved online. Page numbers are not required for newspaper citations.

Note:

1. David G. Savage, "Stanford Student Goes to Supreme Court to Fight for Her Moms," Los Angeles Times, April 27, 2015, Nation, http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-gay-marriage-children-20150424-story.html.

2. Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer, July 30, 1990.

3. Mike Royko, "Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold," Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992.

Chicago/Turabian Website Citations

The following notes are examples from the Chicago Manual of Style's section on Websites, Blogs, and Social Media. Authored articles online resemble magazine citations.

1. City of Ithaca, New York (website), CivicPlus Content Management System, accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.cityofithaca.org/.

2. Google; Google Maps; the "Google Maps Help Center"

3. Dot Earth (blog); "Can Future Global Warming Matter Today?," by Andrew C. Revkin, posted August 23, 2016.

4. Wikipedia; Wikipedia's "Let it Be" entry; Wikipedia's entry on the Beatles' album Let it Be

5. Deb Amlen, "One Who Gives a Hoot," Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015, http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.

6. Conan O'Brian (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanObrien/status/590940792967016448.

Purdue OWL

Purdue OWL - An excellent resource for Chicago Manual of Style information. 

Chicago Manual of Style Sample Paper

  • A sample paper from the Purdue OWL provides an excellent example of how a research paper should be structured using the Chicago Manual of Style. 

Citation for Music Majors

Western Libraries have developed an excellent Library Guide for Music Majors. This guide illustrates how to cite information unique to musical scores, videos, and other sources often used in the discipline. 

If you are experiencing problems with our guides, please contact Janet S. Ward, jward@limestone.edu, Associate Professor and Web Services Librarian.