The Modern Language Association (MLA) Manual of Style is commonly used in the Arts and Humanities. The Ninth Edition replaced the Eighth edition in 2021. The Ninth edition did not make many changes to the formatting requirements of bibliographic citations or in-text citations.
AuthorLastName, FirstName. Book Title. Publisher, Year.
McMillan, Montague. A history of Limestone University: 1845-1970. Columbia, SC, R. L. Bryan Company, 1970,
Turabian, Kate. Student's guide to writing college papers. The University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Levitin, Daniel. A field guide to lies: Critical thinking in the information age. Dutton, 2016.
Mathiez, Albert. The French revolution. Translated by Catherine Phillips, Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Jones, Doug. A handbook of photography. 5th ed., Rogers, 2008.
AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages.
AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages. Database, DOI/URL
Bauer, Christine, and Christine Strauss. “Educating Artists in Management - An Analysis of Art Education Programmes in DACH Region.” Cogent Education, vol. 2, no. 1, Cogent, Dec. 2015, https://doi:10.1080/2331186X.2015.1045217.
Cazé, Antoine. “Emily Dickinson and the Question of ‘Giving Death.’” Textual Practice: Nineteenth-Century American Literature and the Philosophical, vol. 33, no. 10, Routledge, Nov. 2019, pp. 1787–800, https://doi:10.1080/0950236X.2019.1665928.
Green, Lucy. “Popular Music Education in and for Itself, and for ‘other’ Music: Current Research in the Classroom.” International Journal of Music Education, vol. 24, no. 2, SAGE Publications, 2016, pp. 101–18, https://doi:10.1177/0255761406065471.
AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Volume, Issue, Date, Pages.
AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Volume, Issue, Date, Pages. Database, DOI/URL
Berry, Barnett. “Teaching, Learning, and Caring in the Post-COVID Era.” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 102, no. 1, Sept. 2020, pp. 14–17. EBSCOhost, https://doi:10.1177/0031721720956840.
Har'el, Alma. "Why Women's History Should Be Everyone's History." Time, 5 Mar. 2020. https://time.com/5795675/documenting-100-women-of-the-year/
Raine, Michael. “Demystifying Streaming Playlists.” Canadian Musician, vol. 42, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 38–41. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=url,ip,cookie,uid&db=a9h&AN=141371924&scope=site.
In general, follow the same format as the magazine. Include the city of publication in [brackets] for local newspapers that do not otherwise include the city of publication in the title. Note: Online editions of newspapers may not include the original page numbers.
Shain, Andy. "Fire ravages the historic Babcock Building in the BullStreet District." Post and Courier [Charleston, SC], 16 Sep. 2020, p. A16.
Lustgarten, Abrahm. "How Climate Migration Will Reshape America: Millions will be displaced. Where will they go?" New York Times.15 Sep. 2020.
For web-based materials that are potentially unstable in format, provide as much information as possible. Note that if you access a stable, published source online, like a magazine or newspaper article, cite it according to the rules for periodicals above. A source like a blog or a Wikipedia article is not a stable source. It may either change overtime or be moved to a new location. In general, it is best to avoid citing sources that do not include an author and date information.
AuthorLast, First. "Page/Article Title." Website Title, Date of Publication, URL, Date Accessed [Day Month Year].
Treilhard, John B. "Chaucer the Love Poet: A Study in Historical Criticism." Medievalists.net, 1 Apr. 2017, https://www.medievalists.net/2015/01/chaucer-love-poet-study-historical-criticism/, Accessed 15 Aug. 2018.
Ferlazzo, Larry, "Tuesday's Must-Read Articles About School Reopening." Larry Ferlazzo's Website of the Day. 14 Sep. 2020. https://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2020/09/14/tuesdays-must-read-articles-about-school-reopening/, Accessed 15 Sep. 2020.
(AuthorLast Page #)
Sentence text referring to the source (Smith 62).
OR: According to Smith, . . . (62).
The above reference is to a work included in the Works Cited page by an author named Smith. If there happened to be two authors named Smith on the Works Cited page, for this example, provide an additional initial or name. Thus, (A. Smith 51) and (N. Smith 62) would separate an Allison Smith from a Nelson Smith.
When citing a classic work for which many various editions exist, provide a chapter reference in addition to the page number.
(Author Page #; Chapter #)
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Harriman House, 2007.
For the above entry on the Works Cited page, provide an in-text citation referencing the chapter and page number:
(Smith 45; ch. 1).